"Petersburg Tale" - the general name of the collection of the ABS N.V. Gogol written in 1830-40.
Content Collection "Petersburg Tale"
The collection includes the following stories: "Nevsky Prospect", "Portrait", "Nose", "Shinel" and "Notes of Crazy".
History of creation Collection "Petersburg Tale"
N.V. himself Gogol never united his works in such a collection, the name of the cycle appeared later, after the author's death. The stories were written at different times and published separately. So "Nevsky Prospect" and "Portrait" N. Gogol created in 1833-1834. The author himself placed both works in the collection "Arabesque", which was published in 1835. There were also the "notes of the crazy", which at that time were published by the name "Blocks from the notes of the crazy."
The story "Nose" was created in 1832-33, but the first publication took place only in 1836 in the "contemporary" of Alexander Pushkin. Interestingly, the magazine "Moscow Observer", where Nikolai Vasilyevich came first, refused to print the story, calling her "bad, vulgar and trivial."
The creation of "Sineli" N. Gogol has devoted several years, from 1836 to 1842. Initially, the author called her "Tale of an official, sanguilding overcoat."
By 1842, Nikolai Gogol seriously edited all of the above mentioned, some have changed the headlines and has already turned on them in the third volume of their first essay assembly. He added the story of the "stroller" and "Rome" and called the whole volume simply and concisely "Tale."
For the first time, the name "Petersburg Tale" appeared at the famous biograph of N.V. Gogol Vladimir Ivanovich Schennair. At the end of the XIX century, Vladimir Ivanovich issued "Materials for the biography of Gogol" and one of the parts of this work was also entitled "Petersburg Store Gogol". This phrase that hour passed and began to be actively used in the literary environment. And in 1924, for the first time, five of the works of the great classics for the first time for all of us were issued by a separate collection under usual to us the name "Petersburg Tale".
So, V.I. Shenroka gave such a name to the collection of non-whim for the sake, but due to the fact that the action of all the above-mentioned Hikolai Vasilyevich's leaders occurs in St. Petersburg. Moreover, the city is not just a background for the events described - it seems to be one of the main characters. And it is not by chance.
Childhood and Youth Nicholas Gogol passed in Malorusia, and the capital of the Russian Empire - Petersburg - such a distant and mounted, always seen him beautiful, brilliant, elegant. However, when Gogol arrived in St. Petersburg in 1828, the city opened him not only his festive side, but also a week, not such an attractive face. Along with the Roschen Nevsky Prospect, there were also small streets, and dirty dead end, and dark sliced yards-wells. And next door to the rich citizens, the poor fell. Moreover, not only frankly beggars and beggars, but also small officials, employees, workers, master - they all lived many, many times the poorest of the nobles, landowners and major traders and constituted the bulk of the city's population.
And it is such "small people" and became the main characters of the "Petersburg leads". Gogol knew those about whom wrote. To some extent, he also attracted himself to this category, as well as in excess, she had seen such characters at a time when he served as an official in the public service. Who is the "little person"? He is a timid, insecure in himself, can not break out a series of troubles, poverty, failures. He constantly suffers humiliation from the authorities, more successful colleagues and in general, all who is above it on the social staircase. Their subds, bullying, neglect hurts such heroes, causing even more to get closed in themselves, to lose hope, to light in themselves, in justice and in general in life.
As a result, Gogol's heroes are either going crazy, or finish the life of suicide, or die - quietly and unnoticed, as well as lived. No one even notices that there are no more. And the elegant and brilliant Petersburg continues to live his front life ...
There is no doubt that the entire cycle is a protest of Gogol against the tragic volatility of life and those who made it such: cruel, unfair, inhuman.
The story of the poor artist Piscav. Once, the artist, along with a friend, walked around Nevsky and saw an attractive brunette. He followed the lady, wanting to meet her, but soon realized that he got into a public house, and the young lady liked him - a priestess of love, although she was only 17 years old. I realized this, the artist quickly retreated. Frustrated he returned home and saw his beloved in a dream on the same night. There she was quite different: they were together on the ball, where the girl explained that everything he saw was not true and she should open Piskarev to the secret ...
In the morning, a man realized that it was only a dream, but before the wonderful that he began to take opium to return this vision as often as possible. Finally, the exhausted artist decided to show his hand and heart to the girl, convince her to throw a shameful profession, go out for him and honestly live life in labor and love. However, the charming brunette did not even listen to him, explaining that he did not want to be neither a dress, nor the seams or the servant. In desperation, Piskarev committed suicide.
His comrade of pies, which on the same day decided to take ads for the blonde, received tumakov from her husband of that very blonde, but decided not to be upset about this and on the same evening there was a great time for dancing.
A unusual male portrait will fall to the young and poor artist Chartkov. The picture attracted him to the fact that the eyes of a man look like alive. Soon strange things begin: Chartes sees a dream, where the old man with a portrait shakes in front of him and the artist cuts out one bundle, and in the morning he discovers the same bundle in the frame frame and with the help of this money pays off debts for the apartment.
Since then, a completely different life begins: Chartkova has no problems with money, but its paintings are turned out to be frankly bad, mechanical, superficial. I envy the "real artists" charts soon goes crazy and dies. However, the story does not end. The reader reveals the story of the appearance of the most portrait, who spoiled the life of Chartkova. And without a unclean power here it was not ...
The plot of the story is very nontrivial: once the college Assistor Kovalev loses his nose, and his barber finds this nose. This is followed by an ironic description of the author, as the first hero of his nose is looking unsuccessfully, and the second is just as unsuccessfully gets rid of it.
At first glance, this work may seem only a funny fantasy. But if you read the message of the author between the lines, it becomes clear that N. Gogol in the image of a lost nose shows us as an external image, under which there is no special content, goes ahead of the person himself. And the hero himself, unexpectedly losing his image, can not even go to the service, because without the outer shell, nobody. Gogol rises society, where the ranks are valued above personality.
The hero of this story, probably, is the brightest and typical sample of a "little man." Akaki Akakievich Bashmachkin serves as a titular adviser in St. Petersburg. This is a very diligent honest person, but since in his duties only and it includes that it is not respectful to rewrite paper, in service, they do not respect him and constantly undergo it, what he is just and can exclaim: "Leave me, why do you offend me?" . Once, Bashmachkin notes that his overcoat was completely proud and starts to save on a new one.
Since his salary is small, a man has to save on the most needed to get the right amount. When he succeeds, he finally sews a new chinel, it steals at the first evening. The abill advised the victim to appeal to the "significant person", but he did not even listen to a small official, she shouted on him and kicked out. From such injustice, Bashmachkin is ill and soon dies. And on the streets of the capital since then there was a ghost that shifted overcoats from rich and high-ranking people.
The story is an excerpt from the diary of a small official of the Accentration of Ivanovich PRAKSNYY, who was so concerned about the search for his field and the fact that she takes a low position in society that a nervous disorder was received on this background and fell into a psychiatric hospital. According to the halls, the reader can observe the disease progresses: if it is originally a certain logic and a statement of real events, then the date of the future and completely fiction events appear to the end.
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St. Petersburg Store Gogol
All the works that united the name "Petersburg Tale" were written by Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol in 1830-1840.
All stories told by the writer had a lot in common. First, the place of action is Petersburg. Secondly, the main character is always a "little person."
Thirdly, each protagonist is an exceptional character who comes out of the common crowd and completely unlike others. Fourth, all leading heroes are waiting for one end - death or disappearance.
This is a philosophical compilation. Every Gogol Character is experiencing tragedy, sometimes incompatible with life. But precisely revealing hopes, experiences and showing a cruel reality, the narrator puts everything into place.Five stories found their place in the collection "Petersburg Tale":
■ Nevsky Prospekt (1833-1834)
■ Portrait (1833-1834)
■ Notes of Crazy (1834)
■ Nose (1832-1833)
■ Shinel (1836-1842)
These are the works that can be considered a bridge laid by Gogol, from classical Russian literature to Russian realism. In this case, the work of the classics is the work of the stylist.
How was the Petersburg story born
Nikolai Vasilyevich came to St. Petersburg, being a very young man that dreams of reorganizing the world. Here he collided with metropolitan reality.
He was going to become a lawyer and serve for the benefit of people. Having hit in the official Wednesday, the young man understood that this is not the place where someone wishes to serve as high ideas. Nikolai tried to find himself in the field of historian - she also did not hold down, although all his lectures had a great success. Attempts have failed to become an actor.
But these Naitaria gave a great portion of life experience to a large portion, and helped to decide on the true vocation, although there were also disappointments on this field. The nature of the metropolitan resistance was the basis of the future creations of mature Gogol, which the writer described in very detailed.
Many authors wrote about St. Petersburg in the satirical bed: Dostoevsky, Sologub, Zoshchenko. Rugali, praised, admired. But asked the tone, of course, Gogol. Moreover, the language game of the words used by Gogol often does not allow to allocate the brightest places. You have to clean the whole passages to enjoy the art of the game of words.
Gogol remembered how he encountered a problem of an unfair attitude, inequality that established in the Society of the Big City. He remembered the plight of the youth, independently launching the path in inhuman conditions. About the constant lack of money for the most necessary things. On the ugly behavior of superior ranks, for which the "little man" simply does not exist.
All this was reflected in St. Petersburg Hands.
In this work, the writer brighterly described the atmosphere of St. Petersburg life. All the magnificence of secular daily daily, men's concerns, and even vanity, as a companion of this luxury.
The writer spent his reader on Nevsky and did not leave any secrets. The narrator warns that you don't need to immediately believe in this beauty and wealth, everything is impregnated with deception.
Here is a walking Mr. In the road, he makes the impression of rich, and in fact "himself consists of a surpetock." And so everything around. Better walking along the avenue, in general, not to listen, what they say stopped the Lord, not to look under the hat under the hat, do not stop at the windows. Just do not succumb to any temptation.
Proof of an unjustified temptation is the tragedy of Piskarez. A poor artist, seduced by the dazzling beauty of a young brunette, paid for his passion for his life. The artist was not able to compare in his unspoiled world, that charming, to which he wrapped in romantic love and the reality in which he led him to have a prostitute. The highest degree of tragic love is shown in this part of the story.
The seduction of the second hero - Nahala Pirogov, had less fatal consequences, and looked like a comic episode. Unprincipled and ready to adapt to all around the lieutenant, it was simply physically punished with her husband pretty blonde, to which pies had flirted for a long time. Completing a light fright, pirings quickly measured with his punishment.
"Nevsky Prospekt" can be divided into three parts. In the first part, the prospectus itself is described, and is described as a living organism. It can be said that this is the same main character as animated characters. In the second part, the history of the unfortunate love of the artist Piskareva is told, and the adventures of Lieutenant Pirogov are outlined in the third.
Combines these three parts one - deception, slander, false. This is the reverse side of the beautiful life. The narrator, as if trying to hide from this lie, says: "I'm trying to wrap in the cloak on the Nevsky Prospect," and concludes: "All deception, everything is a dream, everything is not what it seems!" Explicit contrast, full disappointment. So the rainbow picture of the magnificent secular life is replaced by the dark halftone, where the daemon itself lights the candles.
Despite the fact that the story about the fatal picture was completed and the publication of this essay was held, Nikolai Vasilyevich decided to correct his work. He was not easy to make a small edit, and significantly reworked the text and changed the surname of the hero, Chertkov became referred to as Charts.
The writer touched the theme of genuine art and the attitude of the artist to art. He decided to show that the phenomena of the material world can be explained from the point of view of mystical laws. An ominous picture with the image of the Roshchik in Asian clothes, as an image of evil, fully affects the surrounding reality.
The work consists of two parts, where the author focuses on serving this art in the first part. He talks about a poor artist who can give the latest money for the picture you like and ridiculed the secular crowd, ready to perceive fashionable monotonous trends.
The portrait of mystically helped the artist get rich and now a serious dilemma becomes before the hero. On the one hand, he wants to develop, and on the other hand, agree to the principles and draw monotonous pictures for money.
Cruel disappointment awaits the artist Chartkova when he decides to resume his "true" activity. He does not work, the brushes, accustomed to false, do not miss him anymore. In desperation, the painter bursts the paintings of his student and destroys them, thereby worsening his position. He does not fight evil - he destroys well. The result of the cookie - the artist went down and died.
The second part of the essay tells about another temptation. Here Gogol explains, on the example of his heroes, that if the artist was in touch with evil, he becomes noticeable, as if a man in white polluted clothes.
There is nothing surprising that investing his emotions into the picture, depicting the spirit of darkness, even unfinished work brings every new owner of misfortune. It is necessary to approach art not with the devilish passion, but with Divine Location. The writer concludes that simple copying from nature is not enough. The painter puts into the image of the soul, experience, mood, and it is important that these feelings wore the Divine, and not a devilish tint.
Diary of a Madman
By giving your hero of the speaking surname of Pritishchev, the author immediately shows that the idea of finding an unknown field vitates over the work constantly. This is a field - goal, business, path, fate.
Pritishchev lives in his world, in which various events occur: reading a dog correspondence, peeping for the girl you like. As a result, everyone surrounding perceive him somehow an insignificant official, while Pritishchev knows exactly that he is a man of royal blood.
On the eyes of the reader there is a decomposition of a person, where there is a countdown of time, its own reality, and sometimes the question arises, and what a reality is more objective. Not that, in which the protagonist lives.
The whole story consists of a diary records that are playing Pickschev. Such a genre allows a writer to express artistic realism and show social reality. Composite stress grows with each new record of the main character.
The first records show the empty life of a "little man", albeit nobleman, but completely impoverished. His worthless life is not remarkable. He is dissatisfied with no work or his surroundings.
But suddenly the feeling is broken into his life. Pritishchev falls in love and begins to dream of his director's daughter. At about this time, the first records appear with the incarnations of crazy thoughts. And soon, the Aksente Ivanovich completely breaks away from reality. Now everything was mixed in his inflamed consciousness and he makes insane acts.
Soon, Poprishchev's disease takes a manic shape. He considers himself the heir to the Spanish throne. Immersion in the world of own illusions leads the unfortunate ACSENTIC Ivanovich in a crazy house, where he does not understand why it is so badly drawn, but with readiness and Christian aunt takes all the tests that fell on his share. Burlesque, Grotesque, Patosic transition to a destroying irony - all gathered Gogol in the final monologue of Parcishchev.
All problems affected by the author in the "notes of the crazy" remained relevant to the present day. This is a protest against unfair men, and the difficulties associated with poverty and the lack of mind capable of creating a fair society.
It is impossible not to pay attention to loneliness, which arrives at Aksente Ivanovich. Despite the fact that he lives in a huge city and his hundreds of people surround every day, he in his forty-two years is absolutely lonely. It is difficult to figure out who is to blame for this, society, in an empty manner relating to its members, or the "Little Man" himself does not want to change anything in his life.
Despite the fact that the work of the "nose" was written in the period of creative heyday of Gogol, it did not find quick recognition. The magazine "Moscow Observer" immediately refused the writer in the publication, calling the story bad.
Special style - the literature of the absurdity is a characteristic absence of causal relationships, plot absurdity and paradoxical meaninglessness is not always understood from the first time. The composition there are places that remain incomprehensible even with deep study, but pleasure delivers a fun, original story.
It is believed that the plot of the author found in a popular French joke. But the work done over the "nose" was not simple. The work was repeatedly ruled by the classic and censorship itself, the final was changed, the satirical part was expanded.
From the first lines, the reader enters a fantastic history. The disappearance of the nose is a real tragedy for the main character who considers him the absence of a big obstacle to promotion. Appearance, and not internal qualities puts above all Kovalev. And the selfish nose autonomously walks separately from his master, and even wants to escape from it as far as possible - abroad.
The absurdity of the situation is not only that the nose ran away from his master, but also in relation to the incident. Major Kovalev "Little Man", which puts priorities. Being in its rank, he knows exactly whom it can hold on arrogantly, and where without excesses with moderate modesty. This is visible according to the scenes with the cab, the barrier and respected officials.
Meeting with your own part of the body, which turned out to be higher on three ranks, fully discourages it. The nose is superior to its owner - here it is social inequality in the context of one personality. How to be in social idyll, if your own parts are doing this?
Describing the absurd situation of Kovalev, Gogol raised several problems of society: hypocrisy, kings, false, immorality. The nose does not want to communicate with those who are below the rank, he refuses to connect with his master.
Many contemporaries Nikolai Vasilyevich found out in the story of their comrades, managers, and even themselves. Vain wishes covered society and did not leave places for generosity, nobility, moral majesty.
It ended, however, this is a strange incident for the main character well-being - the nose returned to him as unexpectedly, as disappeared.
The idea of "Sineli" arose from the writer back in 1834, and the joke was an impetus. The bike, designed to cheer, forced the classics to think, and after a few years the new manuscript was based on.
The theme of a "small man" raised in "Sineli", considers social and moral issues. The writer criticizes both the unprincipledness of man, and society, "doing" of this person. The kidness of the interests of the "little man" is adjusted to the limit. But even this is a positive aspect. The hero for the sake of his goal is ready to refuse life benefits. Self-relief, self-restraint, humility make it harder in spirit.
This masterpiece disassembled not one generation of literary crops. Outstanding Soviet Linguist Boris Mikhailovich Eikenbaum, analyzing the "Shinel", drew attention to the fact that initially the first part of the "Shinel" was written as the life of the saint. Akakaya means unlocked, and Akaki Akakievich - it needs to be understood as a quiet, harmless, complacent. When colleagues are offended by Bashmushkina and he says: "Leave me. Why do you offend me? ", The reader can hear the biblical:" I'm your brother. "
In the drafts of Nikolai Vasilyevich, this character had a speaking surname - Tishkevich. But after the writer decided that this was a bust, and replaced the name Tishkevich first at Bashmakevich, then on the shoes, and at the end, relying on the consonance, "came out" Bashmachkin.
The choice of name was also not easy, which was reflected in the story itself, where the author, as if skipping his character's mother's forward forward, gave her opportunity to choose his name to his son. From the fact that she was suggested - Mokkia, session, hosted, trophyli, dula, Varakhai - did not like anything. Then Mother decided to give his son his father's name. So Akaki Akakievich appeared.
Akaki Akakievich lives a blissful life. He found his calling and deals with his beloved business. He brought this process to perfection. No wonder the narrator "gives him" this work, because these cases were engaged in monks of the time of centuries. But he cannot think. And when such an opportunity appears, Bashmachkin directly declares that he will mention something better.
Having found that his overcoat is no longer repaired, he, refusing to himself in everything, saves money to a new one. And when the new thing is sewn, the hero is immediately deprived of it. His suffering is comparable to the suffering of the kings and the lords of the world. For Bashmachkina is a real catastrophe and he dies. After death, his soul does not find peace.